Urbanization (or urbanisation) is a term from geography. The base of the word is the Latin urbs, which means city. The term urbanisation means that lifestyle that is common in a city becomes prevalent. This can happen in two different ways:
- Through the growth of cities; called physical urbanization
- Through the change of behaviour of people living in rural areas; called functional urbanization
Physical urbanization has been observed for centuries. In developing countries this is the main form of urbanization. In developed countries, functional urbanization is the main form of urbanization. With functional urbanization, people living in the city center move to the countryside, next to the city; this is known as suburbanization.
Environmental effects[change | change source]
Environmental scientists are studying the urban heat island. The urban heat island is made when industrial and urban areas are developed and heat becomes plentiful. Environmental impacts also include reducing soil moisture and intensification of carbon dioxide emissions.
Stewart Brand's book Whole Earth Discipline argues that urbanization helps the environment overall. First, the birth rate of new urban dwellers falls immediately to replacement rate, and keeps falling. This can prevent overpopulation in the future. Secondly, it puts a stop to destructive subsistence farming methods, like slash and burn agriculture. Finally, it reduces land use by humans, leaving more for nature.
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Free sample essay on Urbanization in India. Urbanization is a big problem in India. It is rapidly increasing. Urbanization means shifting of rural population to urban areas. It also means the making of rural areas more developed. It includes setting up of factories, creating opportunities to infrastructure, etc.
Urbanization has put great pressure on urban infrastructure. It has made existing cities crowded with people. Towns are turning into cities, new colonies and settlements have mushroomed everywhere. Wide inequality in development and economic growth has become a major cause of urbanization. Rapid industrialization has also contributed to the growth of urbanization.
Urbanization in India is a recent phenomenon. The policies of liberalization and globalization have immensely contributed to this, in early part of the twentieth century, it was limited. Though the pace of urbanization gained momentum in the post-Independence era, lack of employment opportunities has been a drive behind the urbanization. Since agriculture in India is seasonal in nature, most of the year’s people are left without job. There are no regular work opportunities there.
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In addition, lack of basic amenities in life leads people to migrate to urban areas. The developed cities provide them work opportunities and better social and cultural opportunities. There are big opportunities for education, growth and prosperity. People in rural areas being sick of unemployment, migrate to urban areas.
Everyday a great number of people migrate to different urban centers. They are settling in and around the centre of towns and cities. It has created a problem of housing in cities and urban slums have started growing. The rise of the migration has outpaced the development in towns and cities. Migration has resulted in overcrowded houses, traffic jams and pressures on schools and colleges, system of civil supplies, etc. It has also contributed to the rise of crimes such as burglary, black-marketing, prostitution, adultery, etc.
Urbanization has led to the emergence of nuclear families. It has weakened the family bond. Urbanization has caused erosion in moral values. Urbanization has led to a shift in attitude to materialism. Everybody is hankering after money. People do not have time to care and share. Social contacts have become segmental in urban cities. People have become self-seeking. To a great extent urbanization has ended social life. Mutual relations among the family members have been adversely affected. Even the community life is disappearing.
Urbanization has raised the standard of living of the people. It has created big business opportunities. Despite all these, unchecked flow of urbanization is a cause of concern.
It has worsened condition in town. It has worsened condition in cities. Government should introduce such policies and programmes which may check the growth of population. It should make policies to ensure equal development so that situation may be controlled before it is too late.