Free Essays Organisational Structures And Cultures In The Workplace

Abstract

Background

Organizational culture refers to the beliefs and values that have existed in an organization for a long time, and to the beliefs of the staff and the foreseen value of their work that will influence their attitudes and behavior. Administrators usually adjust their leadership behavior to accomplish the mission of the organization, and this could influence the employees' job satisfaction. It is therefore essential to understand the relationship between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction of employees.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was undertaken that focused on hospital nurses in Taiwan. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire; 300 questionnaires were distributed and 200 valid questionnaires were returned. To test the reliability of the data, they were analyzed by Cronbach's α and confirmatory factors. Correlation analysis was used on the relationships between organizational cultures, leadership behavior and job satisfaction.

Results

Organizational cultures were significantly (positively) correlated with leadership behavior and job satisfaction, and leadership behavior was significantly (positively) correlated with job satisfaction.

Conclusions

The culture within an organization is very important, playing a large role in whether it is a happy and healthy environment in which to work. In communicating and promoting the organizational ethos to employees, their acknowledgement and acceptance of it can influence their work behavior and attitudes. When the interaction between the leadership and employees is good, the latter will make a greater contribution to team communication and collaboration, and will also be encouraged to accomplish the mission and objectives assigned by the organization, thereby enhancing job satisfaction.

Background

Organizational culture is described by Robbins & Coulter [1] as the shared values, beliefs, or perceptions held by employees within an organization or organizational unit. Because organizational culture reflects the values, beliefs and behavioral norms that are used by employees in an organization to give meaning to the situations that they encounter, it can influence the attitudes and behavior of the staff [2]. Understanding the organization's core values can prevent possible internal conflict [3], which is the main reason for our research into these cultural issues.

In other management fields, empirical research of organizational culture has involved the functionalist perspective, providing impressive evidence of the role of organizational culture in improving performance [4]. The pervasiveness of an organizational culture requires that management recognize its underpinning dimensions and its impact on employee-related variables, such as job satisfaction [5], organizational commitment [6], and performance [7]. Lund [5] believed that less research was done on the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction within the research topic of organizational culture and outcome. The organization consists of the staff, with the behavior of its individual members affecting outcomes. Since cultural research within the nursing field is not common [8], it is necessary to explore the way the culture influences the behavior of the nursing staff, and in turn how the behavior of the staff influences the organizational outcome.

A two-dimensional model of leadership that focuses on the concern for people and production has been used for many years in organizational research [9]. In the late 1970s, leadership research started focusing on behavior within organizational change and development [10]. Leadership implies authority in the broadest sense of the word and not simply the power to wield the stick [11]. It is based on objective factors, such as managerial ability, and more subjective characteristics that include personal qualities of the leaders. The factors are of even greater importance given the current emerging culture of the nurse who has a clear and assertive vision about the nature of clinical practice [12].

Currently, there is a shortage of nurses in clinical care, and good leaders can help any attrition. Furthermore, the leadership skills of nurse administrators can contribute to the success of their organization [13]. Leadership is of increasing importance in clinical nursing [14]. Although leadership and organizational culture constructs have been well studied, the relationship between them has not been established in the field of nursing [6]. This study explores the relationship between organizational culture and leadership behavior.

Berson & Linton [15] discovered that within the research & development (R&D) and administrative environments, leadership behavior of a manager is closely related to work satisfaction of the employees. Nielsen et al. [16] have stated that leadership behavior and job satisfaction will depend on the organizational context; therefore another objective of this research was to understand how the leadership behavior of the administrator in different organizational cultures affects job satisfaction. Casida & Pinto-Zipp [17] explored how nurses felt about the relationship between leadership and organizational culture, and found them to be correlated. Although the data indicated that the development of an organizational culture is related to the behavior of its leaders, the results failed conclude whether this affected their attitudes or behavior as employees. From the nursing administration perspective, the normal course of action taken to influence employee behavior and achieve the objectives set by the administrators comes through administrative management. Therefore, as well as discussing the relationship between leadership behavior and organizational culture, this research will investigate the effect of leader behavior and organizational culture towards employee job satisfaction. The findings clearly show that hospital administrators should be concerned about the effects of leadership behavior and organizational culture on the attitude towards work of their employees. This should help administrators alter their behavior in order to maintain a good mutual relationship with their subordinates, improving their working attitude and, more importantly, reducing potential conflicts.

Relationship between organizational culture and leadership behavior

Culture is socially learned and transmitted by members; it provides the rules for behavior within organizations [18]. The definition of organizational culture is of the belief that can guide staff in knowing what to do and what not to do, including practices, values, and assumptions about their work [19]. The core values of an organization begin with its leadership, which will then evolve to a leadership style. Subordinates will be led by these values and the behavior of leaders, such that the behavior of both parties should become increasingly in line. When strong unified behavior, values and beliefs have been developed, a strong organizational culture emerges. Leaders have to appreciate their function in maintaining an organization's culture. This would in return ensure consistent behavior between members of the organization, reducing conflicts and creating a healthy working environment for employees [20].

Hypothesis 1- Organizational culture is positively correlated with leadership behavior.

Relationship between leadership behavior and job satisfaction

Job satisfaction has been associated with nurses who perceive their managers as supportive and caring. A supportive manager shares values, believes in a balance of power, and provides opportunities for open dialogue with nurses [21], which in turn reduces the chances of internal conflicts. This type of leader is successful in his or her role and is supportive and responsive to clinical nurses, thereby preserving power and status within the hospital system. Such leaders are valued throughout the organization and have executive power to do what they see as necessary to create a positive environment for nursing [22]. Accordingly, they have a measurable effect on the morale and job satisfaction of nurses [23].

Hypothesis 2 - Leadership behavior is positively correlated with job satisfaction.

Relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction

Organizational culture expresses shared assumptions, values and beliefs, and is the social glue holding an organization together [24]. A strong culture is a system of rules that spells out how people should behave [25]. An organization with a strong culture has common values and codes of conduct for its employees, which should help them accomplish their missions and goals. Work recognition and job satisfaction can be achieved when employees can complete the tasks assigned to them by the organization.

Hypothesis 3 -.Organizational culture is positively correlated with job satisfaction.

The measurement of organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction

A structured questionnaire was compiled based on similar studies published in international journals [26,27]. Twenty-three factors regarding organizational culture were taken from Tsui et al. [26], a study based on two groups of MBA students from two universities in Beijing, China. Our research was focused on clinical nurses in hospitals; therefore, refinements were made to the questionnaire designed by Tsui et al. [26] to cater for our particular research objective. The study invited three directors or supervisors from the medical center to validate the questionnaire. Lastly, there were 22 questions in the organizational culture section.

Thirty items regarding leadership behavior were taken from Strange & Mumford [27], and the questions structured using this literature. However, the proposed test was not empirically studied. Nurses from hospital A were used as a pilot study sample. Four question items were deleted to improve the validity of the questionnaire: "People will have an extreme reaction to the leader"; "Followers will sacrifice themselves for the leader and/or the leader's vision"; "The leader is motivated by the accomplishment of his vision"; and "The leader will take into account the needs of the organization in his decision making."

Vroom [28] classified job satisfaction into 7 dimensions: organizational, promotion, job content, superior, reward, working environment and working partners. We took into consideration that nurses' salary increases are based on promotion. Furthermore, a large number of variables in organization culture and leadership behavior were covered by this research. To prevent too few number nurses from responding to the questionnaires, we asked only 4 job satisfaction dimensions out of a total of 12 items: job recognition, reward and welfare, superior and working partners.

Methods

Study Design

A cross-sectional study was conducted in two hospitals in Central Taiwan.

Data Source and Analysis

We employed self-administered questionnaires to collect research data. Data was collected between October 1 and November 30, 2008. We selected 2 hospitals as our sample target and appointed a designated person at each to issue questionnaires to employees. The number of questionnaires issued depended on the designated person. The questionnaires were completed voluntarily by all respondents. During the research period, there were 325 nurses in hospital A; 100 questionnaires were distributed, and 57 valid questionnaires were returned. In hospital B there were a total of 572 nurses; 200 questionnaires were distributed, and 143 valid questionnaires were returned (total return rate 66.7%).

Of the subjects, 99.5% were female, 83.5% single or never married, 35.5% had a tenure at the hospital of 1-2 years, and 45.0% had had a college-level education. The majority of employees at the hospitals were general nurses (89.5%), and the average age was between 21 and 30 years (82.5%)(see Table ​1).

All data were analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 software package. Cronbach's α coefficient was used to assessed the internal consistency reliability of scales. To explore the factor construct of scale, a series of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were employed. Correlation analysis was used to test for the relationships among subscales of organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction scale. Finally, a series of regression analysis were used to identify the proposed hypotheses. For H1 and H3, two sets of simple linear regression were used to assess the association between independent variable and dependent variable. For H2, hierarchical regression analysis was used to assess the independent association between leadership behavior and job satisfaction after controlling for the effect of organizational culture. Partial R2 R2), F test and standardized regression coefficient (β) and their test statistics (t value) were reported in all regression analysis.

Measurement

Given the latent character of the variables considered in the study, we used multi-item, 5-point Likert-type scales (1='strongly disagree' and 5='strongly agree'). After reliability analysis, the Cronbach's α of the organizational culture scale was 0.958 (22 items). The Cronbach's α of the leadership behavior scale was 0.966 (26 items), and for job satisfaction 0.855 (12 items).

The questionnaires used exploratory factor analysis. We extracted 4 factors from the organizational culture via principal component analysis, used the Varimax of the rotation method, and named them: employee orientation, customer focus, emphasizing responsibility, and emphasizing cooperation. We extracted 4 factors from leadership behavior and named them: leader's encouragement and supportiveness to subordinates, leader giving subordinates a clear vision and trust, leader's behavior is consistent with organization's vision, and leader is persuasive in convincing subordinates to acknowledge the vision. We extracted factors for job satisfaction and called them: working partners, rewards and welfare, superior and job recognition.

Results

Descriptive statistics

The average score for organizational culture was between 3.73 and 3.19, but the highest score was 3.73: "satisfying the need of customers at the largest scale." The second highest score was 3.68: "the profit of the customer is emphasized extremely." The lowest score was 3.19: "concern for the individual development of employees" (see Table ​2).

Table 2

Mean and Standard Division and the Factor Analysis of Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction

The average score for leadership behavior was between 3.77 and 3.42, where 2 items scored the highest score at 3.77: "the leader will act accordingly with a certain 'vision' that specifies a better future state", and "the leader will behaviorally role model the values implied by the vision by personal example". The second highest score was 3.69: "the leader will use positive rewards and reinforcement with his followers." The lowest score was 3.42: "the leader will try to persuade those who disagree with his vision to agree with it" (see Table ​2).

The average score for job satisfaction was between 3.84 and 2.56, where the highest score was 3.84: "to certain people my work is extremely important." The second highest score was "I am satisfied with how colleagues communicate with each other in the office." The lowest score was 2.56: "I am satisfied with my salary as I have less workload compared to other employees in other divisions" (see Table ​2).

Inferential statistical analysis

In relation to the 4 dimensions of organizational culture (employee orientation, customer focus, emphasizing responsibility, and emphasizing cooperation), the 4 dimensions of leadership behavior (leader's encouragement and support to subordinates, leader giving subordinates her/his clear vision, leader's behavior is consistent with the her/his vision and leader is persuasive in convincing subordinates to acknowledge the her/his vision), and the 4 dimensions of job satisfaction (working partners, rewards and welfare, superior and job recognition), variable analysis was carried out. The results of the analysis showed that only 2 dimensions from "leader giving subordinates her/his clear vision" and "behavior consistent with her/his vision" and "reward and welfare" under the job satisfaction were not significantly correlated, whereas the other dimensions showed significant correlation. The results also showed that organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction were positively associated with hypotheses one to three, which were supported (see Table ​3).

Table 3

Correlation Analysis among Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction

Table ​4 presents the results of several regression analyses. H1 was supported, as organizational culture was positively associated with leadership behavior (β = .55, p < .001). H3 was also supported as organizational culture was positively related to job satisfaction (β = .66, p < .001). Finally, H2 was supported as the partial regression coefficient of leadership behavior reached statistically significant (β = .33, p < .001) after controlling the effect of organizational culture. The unique variance explained attributable to leadership behavior was 8% (ΔF = 30.58, p<.001) independent of organizational culture (see Table ​4). The association among there three main variables was illustrated as Figure ​1.

Table 4

The Linear Regression of Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction

Figure 1

The association between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction. (The values shown were standardized regression coefficient and value in parenthesis was partially standardized regression coefficient)

Discussion

Casida & Pinto-Zipp [17] studied nurses in determining the relationship between different leadership styles and organizational cultures, and showed a correlation between leadership and organizational culture, consistent with the findings of our research. However, by adopting regression analysis, we also found that leadership behavior impacts on organizational culture.

Laschinger et al. [29] proposed that the variables strongly correlated with job satisfaction included role conflict, head nurse leadership, supervisory relationships, autonomy, and stress. Mayo [30] argued that the key determinant of job satisfaction was group interaction, and highlighted the importance of good leadership and satisfying personal relations in the workplace. Management and leadership behavior at the hospital affected nurses' job satisfaction [31]. The research also discovered that leadership behavior will also influence employee job satisfaction. As well as the above-described individual factors, the research also showed that factors at the organization level, such as the organizational culture, also have an effect on job satisfaction. This result is consistent with the results of Gifford et al. [32]. It is recommended that it is also important for hospital administrators to establish a good organizational infrastructure in addition to improving the working environment in order to increase employee job satisfaction.

Decisions about patient care are often made by a team, rather than by a single individual [33]. To maintain open communication and better coordination, as well as avoiding possible conflicts, one must rely on the role of leaders to motivate the team to achieve the organization goal. It was found that encouragement and support by leaders, their trust and clear vision, their consistent behavior in this regard and their ability to convince subordinates to acknowledge their vision, can all influence employee job satisfaction. On the other hand, we found that the factors in achieving job satisfaction were not limited to the employee's working environment, but also included interactions between working partners. Good health care requires good team behavior, so it is also recommended that hospital administrators not only establish relationships within the health care teams, but also work to improve these relationships to increase employee job satisfaction.

Academics who study organizational culture as their research topic feel that organizational culture is complex. It will influence different employee attitudes and behavior [34]; for example Jacobs & Roodt [35] discovered a correlation between employee turnover intentions, knowledge sharing organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction and organizational culture. Other academics have found that organizational culture is also related to organization or employee efficiency. Good examples are an organization's innovative ability [36], employee effectiveness (e.g. higher levels of goal orientation, self control) [37]. Kane-Urrabazo [20] believed that a satisfactory work environment can be created by the employees when an organisation possesses a healthy culture and thus has a positive attitude towards employee work. Therefore the relationship between organisational culture and employee behaviour/attitude has been emphasised by different academics from various fields [26]. Jacobs & Roodt [35] showed a positive correlation between organisational culture and employee job satisfaction that is consistent with the findings of our research.

Research limitations and future research

Since a wide range of variables were included in our study, only a limited number of clinical nurses were interested in participating. Furthermore, only 2 hospitals were involved in this research; therefore, it is proposed that in view of the response rate, future research should consider adjusting the research variables.

Organizations face challenges in the external environment and changing internal context, and leaders will alter their behavior to adapt to these environment changes. Therefore it is proposed that longitudinal research methods can be adopted in future investigations into how changes in organizational context impact on leadership behavior. Will these changes create a brand new organization culture? And how will these changes in leadership behavior influence employee behavior and their contribution to the organization?

Administrators usually adjust their leadership behavior in order to reach the organizational goal. It is proposed that future research can explore the type of leadership behavior that will shape a particular culture within an organization. Thus, administrators can achieve the objective of shaping a new organization culture by adopting different leadership behavior training programs.

Conclusion

Culture within an organization is very important, playing a large role in whether or not the organization is a happy and healthy place to work [20]. Through communicating and promoting the organizational vision to subordinates, and in getting their acknowledgement of the vision, it is possible to influence their work behavior and attitudes. When there is good interaction between the leader and subordinates, there will be contributions to team communication and collaboration, and encouragement of subordinates to accomplish the mission and objectives assigned by the organization, which in turn enhances job satisfaction.

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1061 words - 4 pages As this case analysis was thoroughly investigated we have discovered that the company Antiguan paints had some major problems, after careful consideration and collaboration it has been established that the core problems which hinders the success of Antiguan Paints are as a result of the lack of organization structure and Communication. The Satellite problems stated within this case study are management, leadership, role conflict and role ambiguity. Organization structure can be defined as the process that determines the authority relationships amongst employees within an organization. Communication can be considered as a process or flow, it conveys a message and it is the transference of... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Structure and Leadership at Clinton Massie High School

2384 words - 10 pages Clinton Massie High School (CMHS) is a public Ohio high school situated in a rural setting in Clinton County. The average daily membership is 573 students. Of the 573 students, 97 percent are white, 2 percent are Hispanic and 1 percent is multi-racial (Ohio Department of Education, 2013). 25 percent of students are classified as economically disadvantaged (2013). A reason for the high percentage of economically disadvantaged students was due to the recent closing of DHL package Delivery Company. DHL was a major employer for the entire county and few employment options exist for the displaced workers. As a result, Clinton County has experienced a sharp increase in the amount public... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Planning & Structure- This paper covers various ways to organize and structure a company internally.

853 words - 3 pages To be successful in today's world, organizations must quickly respond to a competitive and continuous changing environment. In most cases that means being innovative, reinventing themselves' and changing many of the established ground rules of their own industry. Organizational leaders can't allow their staff to settle and be content with ideas of the past. Organizations must challenge its management staff to embrace change while continuing to look for ways and methods to improve. In many instances, an organization's structure can impact the degrees of its successes. For instance, an organization with a decentralized structure, which has open communication system, tends to be more... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organisational Structure, Culture, and Management Style of a Business

1065 words - 4 pages Organisational Structure, Culture, and Management Style of a Business C2 An Analysis of How the Organisational Structure, Culture And Management Style of the Business Affects its Performance and Operation and Help It to Meet Its Objectives The organisation structure of Wednesbury IKEA The organisation structure in the ‘Appendix section’ belongs to the Wednesbury branch of IKEA. Wednesbury IKEA is a large formal organisation and it is best suited to a hierarchical organisational structure. This is because; there are more employees as it goes downwards from each level. This type of organisational structure has many levels of management. The organisational structure has been... VIEW DOCUMENT

Nursing and The Organizational Culture of Human Resource Management

1483 words - 6 pages Organizational culture can play a very important role in any corporation’s success. As we learn more about how to make a company more successful through effective management of Human Resource, we are learning of the value of people, as a whole, and how they contribute to the success or failure of an organization. That’s even more so true with in healthcare organizations. Nurses play a pivotal role in the health care profession and make up the majority of healthcare workers in a hospital setting. However, there is a nursing shortage globally that is expected to increase as nurses from the baby boom era are set to retire. This is where human resource management and organizational culture... VIEW DOCUMENT

Hitachi Automotive: Organizational Culture MGT 449: Quality Management and Productivity

1157 words - 5 pages Hitachi Automotive: Organizational CultureHitachi Automotive Products, Los Angeles (HAP-LA), based in Torrance, is a major remanufacturer of alternators, starters, electronic control units, mass airflow sensors, distributors, and other automotive electronic parts. HAP-LA reports to a corporate office based in Harrodsburg, KY, which in turn reports to the main Hitachi Automotive plant in Katsuta, Japan. As a Japanese based company, HAP-LA's organizational structure and culture is very strongly influenced by the Japanese corporate office, as well as the general managers, both past and present, that are... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Culture: Diverse Types of Cultures and Employees Viewpoints

1052 words - 4 pages Quantitative An article by Ophillia Ledimo entitled, Managing Organizational Culture Through an Assessment of Employees’ Current and Preferred Culture, was examined for the quantitative portion of this research paper (2013). Quantitative research presents relationships among data collected (Plano Clark & Creswell, 2010). This article reflects this definition of quantitative research. Ledimo (2013) presents the problem that exists as a gap in literature that although employee perceptions of organizational culture exist, employee’s preferred culture are often missed in research. The article attempts to address the question of what differences exist between current and preferred culture... VIEW DOCUMENT

Managing Across Culture, a diverse workforce and organizational issues.

3542 words - 14 pages Executive SummaryGlobalization, according to Nayyar (2006), is simply described as "an expansion of economic activities across national boundaries". In this day and age, globalization has become increasingly important and common for many organizations as globalization is a way to expand an organization and targeting a more open market. Many organizations have successfully crossed the bridge of globalization and become popular brand, such as McDonald's, Nike and Toyota just to name a few. Therefore the skills to cope with globalization are essential for managers working in growing companies. In section one; this report will explore the topic of 'managing across culture', the problems and... VIEW DOCUMENT

Safety Culture and Profit: Aviation's Continuing Organizational Dilemma

4075 words - 16 pages Safety Culture and Profit: Aviation's Continuing Organizational DilemmaAbstractThe safety vs. profit organizational dilemma has been a prominent trademark of the airline industry since its inception. This paper critically analyzes and compares two sets of management styles; one that propagates a pathogenic organizational and safety culture and another that exemplifies the proper balance of safety and profit while maintaining a high level of job satisfaction for its employees. Case examples are used to illustrate the consequential effects of both latent and overt management errors. A paradigm... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Culture and Behavior in the Age of Globalization

1191 words - 5 pages In the age of globalization, an in-depth study and understanding of the organization’s culture and behaviour have become vital as its people comprise of different race, colour and culture. Organizational behaviour basically defines the interaction of human beings in a given organization and analysis of individuals and groups characteristics facilitates better understanding, prediction and improvisation in work place, leading to improved performance. Workers are the pillars of the organization and his responses to other people and circumstances differ widely as per the values and the principles that he follows in his life. Each person develops certain characteristics or attitude based on... VIEW DOCUMENT

The Organizational Systems and Structure Found in "The Bee Movie" and How it Relates to Society

1716 words - 7 pages Current state “Bees don’t think about what is impossible. That’s why we can fly when everyone says we shouldn’t be able to” (The Bee Movie, 2007). One of the things that confines creative thinking is the belief that a system or structure or current way of doing things creates boundaries that should not/ought not to be crossed. That is similar to a non-permeable border – nothing from one side crosses to the other side. This non-porous thinking affects ideas, values, change and behavior to an extent that one becomes stagnant and dormant almost to the point of apathy. The hive and the occupants were subject to a limited perspective. Only the pollen jockeys got to go outside, and... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Structure and Process Design: A case Study on Maruti Suzuki

8948 words - 36 pages IntroductionMaruti Udyog Limited is a subsidiary of Suzuki Motor Corporation, the largest manufacturer of mini passenger vehicles in Japan in terms of sales volumes. Suzuki was also the eleventh largest vehicle manufacturer in the world and the fourth largest manufacturer in Japan in terms of worldwide sales volumes in 2000. Maruti was ranked twentieth in terms of worldwide sales volumes amongst vehicle manufacturers, and has been the largest passenger car manufacturer in India. In fiscal 2002, it had the highest sales volumes of 339,964 cars and a market share... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational effectiveness depends largely on the degree of "fit" between an organisation's structure and its environment

1170 words - 5 pages The term organizational effectiveness has received considerable criticism as to the way it is viewed by its many stakeholders. For instance, the achievement of goals and objectives, resource acquisition and allocation, internal effectiveness and stakeholder satisfaction can all be interpreted differently by its various stakeholders (employees, top management and shareholders). It can be broadly defined as "the importance of achieving productivity through the effective management of people, and their commitment to, and involvement with, the organization"1.The question is whether the degree of organizational effectiveness will revolve around the relationship of an organisation's... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Structure, How today's organizations are structured and why it works.

870 words - 3 pages To be successful in today's world, organizations must quickly respond to a competitive and continuous changing environment. In most cases that means being innovative, reinventing themselves' and changing many of the established ground rules of their own industry. Organizational leaders can't allow their staff to settle and be content with ideas of the past. Organizations must challenge its management staff to embrace change while continuing to look for ways and methods to improve. In many instances, an organization's structure can impact the degrees of its successes. For instance, an organization... VIEW DOCUMENT

What is Organizational Culture? Explain both how the culture of an organization might evolve and why an understanding of the organizational culture is important

1613 words - 6 pages When we hear the word 'culture', what appear on our minds are traditions, which have lived and been practiced through the generations of a certain race, tribe or people, for examples, top-spinning and traditional wedding for the Malays. In the following paragraphs, I will be explaining what organizational culture actually is, as applied to the organizations nowadays.According to R.W. Griffin, in his book Management, he defines organizational culture as a broad form of culture, which comprises of a set of values, beliefs, behaviours, customs, and attitudes that help the members of the organization understand what it stands for, how it does things, and what it considers important. If... VIEW DOCUMENT

Relationship among organisational theory, design, culture, structure and design and how they contribute to the organisation

2322 words - 9 pages This paper explains the relationships of organizational design, structure, culture and change. Organisational theory seeks to understand the principle that govern how organizations operate, evolve, and change their structures and cultures and the factors that affect the way organizations operate, evolve, change. Its focus is on the organization as a whole. An organisations behavior is the result of its design and the principles behind its operations.1) ORGANISATIONAL THEORYOrganisational theory is designed to understand the nature of the organisations. By which organizations... VIEW DOCUMENT

Explain how organisational structure and culture relate to power and influence in the workplace.

1537 words - 6 pages An organisation can be described as a means by which management can co-ordinate the efforts of individuals to achieve an objective. It can be looked at, as an intentional structure of roles where the process involves both the structuring of activities together with the allocation of roles within the workplace. In a formal organization it shows the authority relationship, the formal communication channel and the formal lines of accountability. The informal structure is linked to personal characteristics and social relationships which reflects the political nature of the organization.Important aspects of an organizational structure would involve the span of control and the scalar... VIEW DOCUMENT

Behavior and Organizational Culture: It’s My Party and I’ll Do What I Want

1671 words - 7 pages Introduction This week’s critical thinking assignment, It’s My Party and I’ll Do What I want To, examines the use of organizational strategic power and politics by detailing the events occurring at two of Shoenman and Associates’ traditional annual events. The first event, the company’s annual Christmas party requires compulsory participation by all employees (Rosen, 1988). It transpires after hours the Friday before Christmas (Rosen, 1988). It excludes spousal participation, and takes place outside the work environment at a bar (Rosen, 1988). The second event is a formal breakfast. It occurs the week before Christmas during working hours (Conrad & Poole, 2012). However, the setting is much... VIEW DOCUMENT

How Ethical Leadership is Associated with Employee Output and Organizational Culture

2782 words - 11 pages For an effective and long term success for managers in leadership position, managers have to set an example with high moral standards and conduct that is shown in their daily activities. This kind of leadership qualities must be exerted in their everyday talk, actions, and conduct in the work environment. Today, there’s more demand to be more progressive and efficient in the work place with no room for error (Veiga, Golden, & Dechant, 2004). Also, there has been an increase in consciousness about an individual’s rights, bring in the concern about an employees’ treatment within a jobsite. Issues of ethical and moral conduct of leadership are being scrutinized more than ever before (Veiga... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Culture in Business: Customer Base Description and Customer Service Standards in APA format.

1270 words - 5 pages Cultural Organization: Cisco Systems"Cisco is a global manufacturer of networking and communications products and provides services associated with that equipment and its use. Cisco provides a line of products for transporting data, voice and video within buildings, across campuses and around the world. It is headquartered in San Jose, California." (Marketline Business)Founded in 1984 by a group of Stanford scientists, Cisco Systems sells networking and communication technologies, equipments and services for transporting data, voice and video to various consumers worldwide. Cisco, formed... VIEW DOCUMENT

The institution of work and how organizational culture and job segregation promotes sexism and male dominance in work for pay.

2940 words - 12 pages Social Policy Essay: "Sexism in Work and Pay":The institution of work is the central institution within society. Every person, no matter their gender, needs work to survive in our economically based society. Gender in our society is intertwined with work because the institution of work creates and sustains gender, and more specifically gender inequalities. In 1977, the Canadian government passed a Canadian Human Rights Act that provided the legal foundation for employment equity/affirmative action policies (Nelson & Robinson, 2002, pp237). Essentially, this recommendation... VIEW DOCUMENT

Employee Organizational Culture

632 words - 3 pages The shared characteristics and, in some cases, perception of employees create what is known as organizational culture. A strong culture constructs a unified employee atmosphere, whereas a weak culture lacks a shared sense of distinction between employees. An employee’s heritage or individual culture, although different than, affects the overall organizational culture of companies. Like society, sub-cultures exist within organizations. Formed by departmental function, geographical location, and/or the personalities of employees, sub-cultures include employees who continue to adhere to the organizations’ overall culture, but have additional independent characteristics. Employees’... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Development

758 words - 3 pages Organizational Development � PAGE �1� Organizational Development � PAGE �5� Organizational DevelopmentMonique ConePSY428August 23, 2010Antonio Borrello�Organizational DevelopmentOrganizations themselves are ever changing, as are the people in them. The organizations adapt to change better than the people do. People are resistant to change and are comfortable with what they know from past behaviors. Robbins... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Culture

2375 words - 10 pages Introduction The concept of organizational cultures was first raised in 1970s, and soon became a fashionable topic. Organizational culture is the shared beliefs, values and behaviours of the group. Theorists of organizations believe that organizational culture represents the pattern of behaviours, values, and beliefs of an organization. Hence, studies around organizational culture have been seen as great helpful and essential for understanding organizations and their behaviours. Additionally, organizational culture has been considered to be an important determinant of organizational success. Therefore, leaders and managers pay more than more attentions on this topic, focusing on... VIEW DOCUMENT

Key Success Factors - Organizational Culture

3379 words - 14 pages In this assignment we introduce the idea that the organizational culture is the personality of an organization which can be defined, measured, sustained and changed and have an important impact on an organization's effectiveness.We want to define organizational culture as it is presented by two theorists, indicate levels of expressions of culture in an organization, and provide specific strategies or tools to modify organizational culture.We know that every individual has something that psychologists have termed "personality". An individual's personality is made up of a set of relatively permanent and stable traits. When we describe someone as innovative, relaxed, warm or... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Change

1031 words - 4 pages Organizational change can be intimidating for business leaders. The internet hosts several sites for small consulting firms that specialize in helping corporate leaders initiative positive change in their organizational culture. One such firm, Change Management Solutions, Inc., (CMS) uses a five-step change model, which encompasses contemporary collective and collaborative theories and models of change and change leadership. The firm considers culture, organizational leadership, and change planning as essential tools to prevent “becoming one of the 75% of businesses who fail at change.” (Puelo, n.d.) Similar to the design of the chapters in Hickman’s book, the CMS website promotes... VIEW DOCUMENT

The Definition of Organizational Culture

1044 words - 4 pages Culture and Structure Organizational structure and culture are important elements in a company. Why are these important and how do they affect each other within an organization? The culture is created when the company founders establish a vision or mission (Robbins, Decenzo, & Coulter, 2013). This is their dream and the future of what they have created. The values are traits that are learned from the first employees hired, which then creates the culture or the personality of the business. The definition of organizational culture is ‘The shared values, principles, traditions, and ways of doing things that influence the way organizational members act’ (Robbins, Decenzo, &... VIEW DOCUMENT

What is Organizational Behavior?

817 words - 3 pages Organizational BehaviorOrganizational behavior is essential to creating a strong, prosperous business or corporation.This paper will introduce organizational behavior. It will present trends and theories about this fairly new field. Other relevant topics that will be discussed are organizations, employment relationships, organization behavior trends, and the five-anchor system.Organizational BehaviorIn order to grasp the concept of organizational behavior it must be defined. Organizational behavior is the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around... VIEW DOCUMENT

Leading Change: Good Sport

3770 words - 15 pages AbstractToday, companies face highly competitive businesses and daily challenges. Good Sport is not the only company who changed their strategy to better manage organizational goals. The company's organizational structure, culture, conflict management and political power structures were analyzed. Good Sport's simulation was assessed for alternate strategies and optimal solutions. When faced with issues, Good Sport's management identified and addressed processes where underlying issues hindered structure and culture. Realizing problems and facing organizational challenges provided opportunity for Good Sport to be more successful in achieving their objectives. Good Sport can improve their... VIEW DOCUMENT

Management and Leadership: Military

1917 words - 8 pages Management and Leadership � PAGE �1� Running Header: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIPManagement and Leadership: MilitaryW5 Individual AssignmentUniversity of PhoenixGary StaffordJuly 12, 2008Management and Leadership: MilitaryIntroductionThough popular consensus is that management and leadership are interchangeable terms with the same purpose and meaning nothing could be further from the truth. Management can be defined as influencing one or more person's actions and activities through planning, organizing, leading, controlling... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Culture: MGT 331 - Analysis of my organization cultures

555 words - 2 pages IntroductionOne key component that gives your company or operation that elusive, sustainable competitive advantage is culture.What is culture? In essence, it's a soft, intangible element that deals with people, trust, leadership and passion. The best definition I've heard is this: What people will do when no one tells them what to do.Why is culture important? Because your competitor can duplicate everything you do, i.e. your pricing structure, but they can't duplicate your culture.Want proof positive? Consider award-winning Southwest Airlines. Southwest flies the same routes as other airlines, uses similar equipment and the same airports, but the airline's VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Behavior--A Definition

766 words - 3 pages Organizational Behavior-A Definition By: Manzanita Humphrey March 23, 2002 Organizational Behavior-A Definition Stephen P. Robbins states in the "Organizational Behavior 9/e" textbook that Organizational Behavior is a field of study, because many people in the organizational field spend time examining the behavior of people (p.1) . I learned in my prior Organizational Behavior class in undergraduate school, that... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Culture

798 words - 3 pages The definition of an Organization can be defined as "A structure through which individuals cooperate systematically to conduct business". It includes routine behaviors, norms, or a type of climate that is conveyed. The purpose and function of culture in the workplace is to help create and maintain integration, bring employees from all levels of the organization closer together, and to enhance performance and productivity.Understanding CultureBasically, organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is made up of the assumptions, values and norms of organization members and their behaviors. Members of an organization soon realize the particular culture... VIEW DOCUMENT

Leadership in Action

1023 words - 4 pages This paper will discuss the simulation, "Leadership in Action". The simulation is based on a company called Smith & Falmouth(S&F), who requires assistance to provide the company with conceptual information about the organization structure and to provide specific recommendation to be successful in the next three years. This paper will describe the formal culture of the organization and how this structure compares with other organizational structures. How the companys informal culture influences their effectiveness and formal structure will also be addressed. The role of power and politics will be looked at as well as which leadership style would be the most effective for the Chief... VIEW DOCUMENT

Kudler Market Organizational Behavior

810 words - 3 pages For this weeks paper our class was asked to evaluate the Organizational behavior of Kudler's Fine Foods, and then discuss the apparent culture, organizational structure, and leadership style based on organizational performance. I will approach these areas as they are listed above.Organizational Culture:First I feel that one must understand what organizational culture is. Organizational culture describes the psychology, attitude, experiences, beliefs, and values of an organization and how they share and the norms that people and groups interact with each other and with the stakeholders... VIEW DOCUMENT

Organizational Structure and Culture Essay Examples

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