Scales-The Basic Building Block
Middle Eastern music is based on the maqam system. A maqam roughly corresponds to a Western musical scale. For example, where an American musician might perform Pachelbels Canon in D (a canon - a classical form - played in the key of D major), a Middle Eastern musician might perform the Samai Kurd Shaheen. (A samai - a classical form - played in the maqam known as Kurd and composed by Simon Shaheen.) A composition can begin in a certain maqam, then shift to others during the course of the song. There are at least 24 distinct maqamat, developed over thousands of years of musical history.
A maqam tells a musician what the correct intervals are between the notes of a scale, and which notes should be emphasized. Often, the notes of a scale lie only a quarter-tone apart, rather than half-steps apart. What can sound like dissonance to American ears are actually extremely subtle differences in tone.
Middle Eastern music often contains overlapping rhythms. The drummer may be playing one rhythm, the violinist another, the riq (tambourine) player a third, while the dancer keeps yet another on her sagat (finger cymbals), yet all are woven together into a seamless tapestry of sound. The dancers job is to embody the different rhythms for the audience, while also expressing the emotion of the music.
Middle Eastern musicians frequently perform taqasim - the art of improvisation. Taqasim may be woven into existing compositions - similar to a guitar riff in the middle of an American rock song - or played as an art in themselves, as in the Arabic classical tradition. The musician begins with a well-known melody, a maqam, or a simple collection of notes, then embellishes it in a free-flowing manner.
Often, Middle Eastern music involves ornamentation. In the same way a dancers delicate hand gestures ornament her dance, a musicians style may embrace and color individual notes. Ornamentation includes the use of grace note, trills, runs, arpeggios, "bending" a note, and other techniques. To draw a parallel, imagine singing a simple childs melody like "Three Blind Mice." Then imagine how a jazz musician might play with the song, stretching out certain notes or adding syncopation. You still recognize the basic melody, but the musician has put his or her stamp on it. Both improvisation and ornamentation allow musicians to express their individual style within traditional forms.
Call and Response
Middle Eastern music frequently employs a call-and-response form in which a lead instrument plays a phrase and another instrument responds, creating a musical conversation. The lead and responding instrument can change throughout the composition.
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Tabla-A drum, shaped somewhat like a goblet, traditionally made of clay and covered by a goatskin head. The tabla is literally the heartbeat of Middle Eastern music, as its beat keeps time for the other members of the orchestra. This drum is sometimes referred to as a durbakke or the doumbek.
Oud-A short-necked, pear-shaped string instrument, the ancestor of the European lute. (Say both words aloud, and youll hear the relationship.) Sometimes beautifully ornamented with mother-of-pearl, the oud was traditionally made of the wood of a fruit tree and plucked with an eagle feather. (Todays musicians use a plastic plectrum or pick.) The sound is warm and full and deep.
Violin-Familiar to American audiences, the violin was introduced to the Middle Eastern orchestra only recently, in late 19th or early 20th century. The violin is frequently the lead or responding instrument in a traditional call-and-response. Because of its resemblance to the human voice, the violin is capable of expressing tremendous emotion.
Singer-The singer plays a vital role in both traditional and classical Middle Eastern music, due to the importance of the lyrics. A classical Arabic vocalist can present an entire evening of sung poetry. Part of the singers role is to bring the poetry to life through vocal techniques that invoke the emotions.
Sagat-Small finger cymbals, similar to a Flamenco dancers castanets. A dancer may play the underlying percussive rhythm of the music on her sagat.
Nai-A hollow reed flute, the nai has the haunting, breathy quality that Americans often associate with Middle Eastern music. Because these flutes cannot be tuned to the different maqamat, a nai player carries flutes of many different sizes.
Kanun-A stringed instrument similar to the zither, the kanun has 72 strings, which are plucked by rings fastened to the musicians fingers. The kanun has a delicate, intricate sound, brighter and seemingly faster than the oud.
Riq-The Middle Eastern tambourine, the riq (sometimes called the daff) is played by striking both the fishskin head and the cymbals that surround it.
Tar-A large, round frame drum, similar to the Irish bodhran. The tar is used mainly in popular and folk music and is also referred to as the duff or the bendir.
Other Traditional Instruments include the tabal beledi, a large bass drum played in folk music; the mizmar, an oboe-like reed instrument ; the mijwiz, a double-reed instrument with a droning sound; and the rababa or rebec, a two-stringed fiddle held upright on the knee.
Modern Instruments such as electric guitar, accordion, saxophone, clarinet, organ, piano, cello, bass, and even drum machine and synthesizers are common in todays pop music. Like all great musical traditions, Middle Eastern music is a living art form that is always adapting and changing while staying true to its heritage.
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FAQs-Frequently Asked Questions
What should I listen for?
Hearing an orchestra play Middle Eastern music for the first time can be overwhelming. Begin by concentrating on how one instrument is playing. Try listening to the drums first, then focus on another instrument. Then hear how the instruments interact with each other. If there is a singer, listen to how he or she interacts with the musicians. When in doubt, listen for the deepest drum beat - it is literally the heartbeat of the music! Mostly, listen with your entire body, and when the music goes somewhere, let it take you on its journey.
Where does the music come from? What do we know about its history?
Middle Eastern music is a living tradition that has roots in the ancient civilizations of the Middle East. It echoes the court and folk music of Sumeria, ancient Egypt, Arabia, the Islamic Empires, Andalusia, and Persia. The resulting music traditions are deep and varied, but always evolving as each generation adds its innovations while honoring the forms and work of the past.
What are the different styles of music?
Within the two broad categories of folk and classical music, there are hundreds of styles springing from various regions and sub-cultures. For instance, the pearl-divers of Bahrain have their own musical styles. So did the court musicians of the Ottoman Empire, the mystics of Persia, the folk musicians of Andalusian Spain, the villagers of Lebanon, and many others.
What are the songs about?
Love is a major theme in Middle Eastern music, in all its aspects - love of family, country, nation, nature, and of course, the beloved, whether close at hand or separated by oceans. In addition to love, many songs focus on religious and national ideals. Whatever the theme, however, it is always rendered with strong emotion and passion.
Is this music written out in scores?
Yes, composed music and folk tunes are often written out in scores using Western notation, although many musicians (particularly folk musicians) still learn pieces by ear.
Im hooked! How can I hear more Middle Eastern music?
- Listen! Middle Eastern music is now available in large music retailers and specialty shops. In Minneapolis, try Sindbads International Imports. You can also order by catalogue - Rashids, Daff & Raff, and al-Manar are some of the companies to look for.
- Watch! Check the newspaper for performances in your area. Or look for the movie Umm Kulthum: A Voice Like Egypt by Michal Goldman. This 1997 film (now available on video) explores the performances and life of the greatest Arabic songstress of the 20th century, Umm Kulthum.
- Read About It! A few books to start with include Habib Hassan Toumas The Music of the Arabs and Virginia Danielsons Umm Kulthum: The Voice of Egypt (published by the University of Chicago Press.)
- Surf the Net! We have links to many web sites and discussion groups on Middle Eastern dance, music, and culture.
- Contact Us! Wed love to hear from you! Call, write, or E-mail us at:
Jawaahir Dance Company
3010 Minnehaha Avenue
Minneapolis, MN 55406
Yalla! Dance and Music of the Middle East, is a 6-page brochure explaining these rich and beautiful art forms. For information on how to order, please visit The Souk.
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Arabic Music Overview
Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: موسيقى عربية; Mūsīqā ʿArabīyya) includes several genres and styles of music ranging from Arabic classical to Arabic pop music and from secular to sacred music.
Arabic music whilst independent and very alive, has a long history of interaction with many other regional musical styles and genres. It is an amalgam of the music of the Arabs in the Arabian Peninsula and the music of all the peoples that make up the Arab world today. It also influenced and has been influenced by ancient Egyptian, ancient Greek, Persian, Kurdish, Assyrian, Turkish, Indian, North African music (i.e. Berber), African music (i.e. Swahili), and European music (i.e. Flamenco). As was the case in other artistic and scientific fields, Arabs translated and developed Greek texts and works of music and mastered the musical theory of the Greeks (i.e. Systema ametabolon, enharmonium, chromatikon, diatonon). Such inter-influences can often be traced in language; for example, the word Shî'ir (poetry in Arabic) bears much similarity to its equivalents in other Semitic languages (such as Shûr in Aramaic and Shîr in Hebrew), and Shîro in Babylonian. Afar music is similar to the music of Ethiopia with elements of Arab music. The Somali oral traditions include an array of poetry and proverbs, much of it devoted to the lives of Sufi saints. Afar oral literature is more musical, and comes in many varieties, including songs for weddings, war, praise and boasting.
The development of Arabic music has deep roots in Arabic poetry dating back to the pre-Islamic period known as Jahiliyyah. Though there is a lack of scientific study to definitively confirm the existence of Arabic music at those times, most historians agree that there existed distinct forms of music in the Arabian peninsula in the pre-Islamic period between the 5th and the 7th century AD. Arab poets of that time - called شعراء الجاهلية or "Jahili poets" which translates to "The poets of the period of ignorance" - used to recite poems with a high musical rhythm and tone.
LMusic at that time played an important role in cultivating the mystique of exorcists and magicians. It was believed that Jinns revealed poems to poets and music to musicians. The Choir at the time served as a pedagologial tool where the educated poets would recite their poems. Singing was not thought to be the work of these intellectuals and was instead entrusted to women with beautiful voices (i.e. Al-Khansa) who would learn how to play some instruments used at that time (i.e. lute, drum, Oud, rebab, etc...) and then perform the songs while respecting the poetic metre. It should be noted that the compositions were simple and every singer would sing in a single maqam. Among the notable songs of the period were the "huda" from which the ghina' derived, the nasb, sanad, and rukbani.
Early Islamic period
Al-Kindi (801–873 AD) was the first great theoretician of Arabic music. He proposed adding a fifth string to the oud and discussed the cosmological connotations of music. He surpassed the achievement of the Greek musicians in using the alphabetical annotation for one eighth. He published fifteen treatises on music theory, but only five have survived. In one of his treaties the word musiqia was used for the first time in Arabic, which today means music in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, English and several other languages in the Islamic world.
Al-Farabi (872-950) wrote a notable book on music titled Kitab al-Musiqi al-Kabir (The Great Book of Music). His pure Arabian tone system is still used in Arabic music.
Arabic maqam is the system of melodic modes used in traditional Arabic music, which is mainly melodic. The word maqam in Arabic means place, location or rank. The Arabic maqam is a melody type. Each maqam is built on a scale, and carries a tradition that defines its habitual phrases, important notes, melodic development and modulation. Both compositions and improvisations in traditional Arabic music are based on the maqam system. Maqams can be realized with either vocal or instrumental music, and do not include a rhythmic component.
Bayad plays the oud to The Lady. from the Riyad & Bayad , Arabic tale
By the 11th century, Moorish Spain had become a center for the manufacture of instruments. These goods spread gradually throughout France, influencing French troubadours, and eventually reaching the rest of Europe. The English words lute, rebec, guitar, organ and naker are derived from Arabic oud, rabab, qitara, urghun and nagqara'.
The Arabs invented the Ghazal (love song), often used since in Arabic music. Al-Ghazali (1059 - 1111) wrote a treatise on music in Persia which declared, "Ecstasy means the state that comes from listening to music". The oud was popular between the tenth and sixteenth centuries then fell into disuse, enjoying renewed popularity in the nineteenth century.
Influence of Arabic music
A number of musical instruments used in Western music are believed to have been derived from Arabic musical instruments: the lute was derived from the al'ud, the rebec (ancestor of violin) from the rebab, the guitar from qitara, naker from naqareh, adufe from al-duff, alboka from al-buq, anafil from al-nafir, exabeba from al-shabbaba (flute), atabal (bass drum) from al-tabl, atambal from al-tinbal, the balaban, the castanet from kasatan, sonajas de azófar from sunuj al-sufr, the conical bore wind instruments, the xelami from the sulami or fistula (flute or musical pipe), the shawm and dulzaina from the reed instruments zamr and al-zurna, the gaita from the ghaita, rackett from iraqya or iraqiyya, the harp and zither from the qanun, canon from qanun, geige (violin) from ghichak, and the theorbo from the tarab.
The lute was adopted from the Arab world. 1568 print.
According to a common theory on the origins of the troubadour, a composer of medieval lyric poetry, it may have had Arabic origins. Ezra Pound, in his Canto VIII, famously declared that William of Aquitaine "had brought the song up out of Spain / with the singers and veils..." referring to the troubadour song. In his study, Lévi-Provençal is said to have found four Arabo-Hispanic verses nearly or completely recopied in William's manuscript. According to historic sources, William VIII, the father of William, brought to Poitiers hundreds of Muslim prisoners. Trend admitted that the troubadours derived their sense of form and even the subject matter of their poetry from the Andalusian Muslims. The hypothesis that the troubadour tradition was created, more or less, by William after his experience of Moorish arts while fighting with the Reconquista in Spain was also championed by Ramón Menéndez Pidal in the early twentieth-century, but its origins go back to the Cinquecento and Giammaria Barbieri (died 1575) and Juan Andrés (died 1822). Meg Bogin, English translator of the trobairitz, held this hypothesis. Certainly "a body of song of comparable intensity, profanity and eroticism [existed] in Arabic from the second half of the 9th century onwards."
Another theory on the origins of the Western Solfège musical notation suggests that it may have also had Arabic origins. It has been argued that the Solfège syllables (do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti) may have been derived from the syllables of the Arabic solmization system Durr-i-Mufassal ("Separated Pearls") (dal, ra, mim, fa, sad, lam). This origin theory was first proposed by Meninski in his Thesaurus Linguarum Orientalum (1680) and then by Laborde in his Essai sur la Musique Ancienne et Moderne (1780).
Bartol Gyurgieuvits (1506 - 1566) spent 13 years as a slave in the Ottoman empire. After escaping, he published De Turvarum ritu et caermoniis in Amsterdam in 1544. It is one of the first European books to describe music in Islamic society. In India, the Islamic Mughal emperors ruled both Muslims and Hindus. The greatest of these, Akbar (1542 - 1605) had a team of at least fifty musicians, thirty-six of whom are known to us by name. The origins of the "belly dance" are very obscure, as depictions and descriptions are rare. It may have originated in Persia or Turkey, possibly developing within the harems. Essential elements of belly dancing are the zills (finger cymbals). Examples have been found from 200 BC, suggesting a possible pre-Islamic origin.
Slavery was widespread around the world. Just as in the Roman empire, slaves were often brought into the Arab world from Africa. Black slaves from Zanzibar were noted in the eleventh century for the quality of their song and dance. The "Epistle on Singing Girls", written in Baghdad in 9 CE satirizes the excessive money that could be made by singers. The author mentioned an Abyssinian girl who fetched 120,000 dinars at an auction - far more than an ordinary slave. A festival in 8 CE is mentioned as having fifty singing slave-girls with lutes who acted as back-up musicians for a singer called Jamilia. In 1893, "Little Egypt", a belly-dancer from Syria, appeared at the Chicago world's fair and caused a sensation.
Musicians in Aleppo, 18th century.
Male instrumentalists were condemned in a treatise in 9 CE. They were associated with perceived vices such as chess, love poetry, wine drinking and homosexuality. Many Persian treatises on music were burned by zealots. Following the invasion of Egypt, Napoleon commissioned reports on the state of Ottoman culture. Villoteau's account reveals that there were guilds of male instrumentalists, who played to male audiences, and "learned females," who sang and played for women. The instruments included the oud, the kanun (zither) and the ney (flute). By 1800, several instruments that were first encountered in Turkish military bands had been adopted into European classical orchestras: the piccolo, the cymbal and the kettle drum. The santur or hammered dulcimer was cultivated within Persian classical schools of music that can be traced back to the middle of 19 CE. There was no written notation for the santur until the 1970s. Everything was learned face-to-face .
Early Secular Formation
Musicians in Aleppo, 1915.
In the 20th century, Egypt was the first in a series of Arab countries to experience a sudden emergence of nationalism, as it became independent after 2000 years of foreign rule. Turkish music, popular during the rule of the Ottoman Empire in the region, was replaced by national music. Cairo became a center for musical innovation.
One of the first female musicians to take a secular approach was Umm Kulthum quickly followed by Fairuz. Both have been extremely popular through the decades that followed and both are considered "Arabic Music Legends".
During the 1950s and the 1960s Arabic music began to take on a more Western tone with such artists as Dalida paving the way. By the 1970s several other singers had followed suit and a strand of Arabic pop was born. Arabic pop usually consists of Western styled songs with Arabic instruments and lyrics. Melodies are often a mix between Eastern and Western.
In the 1990s and the 00s several artists have taken up such a style including Sabah, Warda Al-Jazairia, Magida El Roumi, Nawal El Kuwaiti, Latifa, Samira Said, Angham, Asalah Nasri, Thekra, Kadhem Al Saher, Amr Diab, Diana Haddad, Najwa Karam, Nawal Al Zoghbi, Ehab Tawfik, Hisham Abbas, Wael Kfoury, Amal Hijazi, Elissa, Nancy Ajram, Haifa Wehbe, Maria Tekdep, Aldo (musician) and Natacha Atlas.
Arabic Pop has been able to be extremely popular in the Arab world as well as parts of Europe especially places with huge expat communities such as France.
A popular form of West meets East style of music, similar in many respects to modern Arabic Pop. This blend of western and eastern music was popularized as Franco-Arabic music by artists such as Dalida(Egypt), Sammy Clarke (Lebanon) and Aldo (musician) from Australia. Although Franco-Arabic is a term used to describe many forms of cross-cultural blending between the West and the Middle East, musically the genre crosses over many lines as is seen in songs that incorporate Arabic and Italian, Arabic and French and, of course, Arabic and English styles and or lyrics.
Arabic R&B, Reggae, and Hip Hop
Main article: Arabic hip hop
There has also been a rise of R&B, reggae and hip hop influence of Arabic music in the past 5 years. This usually involves a rapper featured in a song (such as Ishtar in her song 'Habibi Sawah')
However certain artists have taken to usuing full R&B and reggae beats and styling such as Darine. This has been met with mixed critical and commercial reaction. As of now it is not a widespread genre.
Another popular form of West meets East, Arabic Jazz is also popular, with many songs using jazz instruments. Early jazz influences began with the use of the saxophone by musicians like Samir Suroor, in the "oriental" style. The use of the saxophone in that manner can be found in Abdel Halim Hafez's songs, as well as Kadim Al Sahir and Rida Al Abdallah today. The first mainstream jazz elements were incorporated into Arabic music by the Rahbani brothers. Fairuz's later work was almost exclusively made up of jazz songs, composed by her son Ziad Rahbani. Ziad Rahbani also pioneered today's oriental jazz movement, which singers like Rima Khcheich, Salma El Mosfi, and Latifa at one point, adhere too.
Rock music is popular all around the world, and the Arab world is no exception. There are many Arabic rock bands that fuse the sound of hard rock with traditional Arabic instruments. Arabic Rock is gaining a lot of attention in the middle east, with bands such as Meen and Dabke in Lebanon , and in Jordan with bands such as Jadal,
Secular art music
Secular genres include maqam al-iraqi, andalusi nubah, muwashshah, Fjiri songs, qasidah, layali, mawwal, taqsim, bashraf, sama'i, tahmilah, dulab, sawt, and liwa (Touma 1996, pp. 55-108).
Arabic religious music includes Jewish, Christian, and Islamic music. However, Islamic music, including the Tajwid or recitation of Qur'an readings, is structurally equivalent to Arabic secular music, while Christian Arab music has been influenced by Syriac Orthodox, Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Anglican, Coptic, and Maronite church music. (ibid, p.152)
Much Arabic music, is characterized by an emphasis on melody and rhythm, as opposed to harmony. There are some genres of Arabic music that are polyphonic, but typically, Arabic music is homophonic.
Habib Hassan Touma (1996, p.xix-xx) submits that there are "five components" that characterize Arabic music:Information courtesy of Wikipedia Encyclopedia
- The Arab tone system; that is, a musical tuning system that relies on specific interval structures and was invented by al-Farabi in the 10th century (p. 170)
- Rhythmic-temporal structures that produce a rich variety of rhythmic patterns, known as awzan or "weight", that are used to accompany metered vocal and instrumental genres, to accent or give them form.
- A number of Musical instruments that are found throughout the Arab world that represent a standardized tone system, are played with generally standardized performance techniques, and display similar details in construction and design.
- Specific social contexts that produce sub-categories of Arabic music, or musical genres that can be broadly classified as urban (music of the city inhabitants), rural (music of the country inhabitants), or Bedouin (music of the desert inhabitants)..."
- An Arab musical mentality, "responsible for the aesthetic homogeneity of the tonal-spatial and rhythmic-temporal structures throughout the Arab world whether composed or improvised, instrumental or vocal, secular or sacred." Touma describes this musical mentality as being composed of:
· The phenomenon of the maqām
· The predominance of vocal music
· The tendency toward small instrumental ensembles
· The arrangement in different combinatory sequences of the small and smallest melodic elements - the maqams and ajnas - "and their repetition, combination, and permutation within the framework of the tonal-spatial model."
· The general absence of polyphony, polyrhythm, and motivic development, though Arabic music is familiar with the use of ostinato, and an even more instinctive heterophonic way of producing and performing music.
· The alternation between a free rhythmic-temporal and fixed tonal-spatial organization on the one hand, and a fixed rhythmic-temporal and free tonal-spatial structure on the other.
Though it would be incorrect to call it a modal, for the Arabic system is more complex than that of the Greek modes, the basis of Arabic music is the maqam (pl. maqamat), which looks like the mode, but is not quite the same. The tonic note, dominant note, and ending note (unless modulation occurs) are generally determined by the maqam used. Arabic maqam theory as ascribed in literature over the ages names between 90 and 110 maqams, that are grouped into larger categories known as fasilah. Fasilah are groupings of maqams whose first four primary pitches are shared in common.
The maqam consists of at least two jins, or scale segments. "Jins" in Arabic comes from the ancient Latin word "genus," meaning type. In practice, a jins (pl. ajnas) is either a trichord, a tetrachord, or a pentachord. The trichord is three notes, the tetrachord four, and the pentachord five. The maqam usually covers only one octave (usually two jins), but can cover more. Like the melodic minor scale, some maqamat use different ajnas, and thus note progressions, when descending and ascending. Due to continuous innovation and the emergence of new jins, and because most music scholars have not reached consensus on the subject, it is difficult to provide a solid figure for the total number of jins in use. Nonetheless, in practice most musicians would agree there are at least eight major ajnas: Rast, Bayat, Sikah, Hijaz, Saba, Kurd, Nahawand, and Ajam - and their commonly used variants such as the Nakriz, Athar Kurd, Sikah Beladi, Saba Zamzama. Mukhalif is a rare jins used almost exclusively in Iraq, and it is not used in combination with other ajnas.
More notes used than in Western scale
The main difference between the Western chromatic scale and the Arabic scales is the existence of many in-between notes, which are sometimes referred to as quarter tones, for the sake of simplicity. In some treatments of theory, the quarter tone scale or all twenty four tones should exist. According to Yūsuf Shawqī (1969), in practice, there are many fewer tones (Touma 1996, p. 170).
Additionally, in 1932, at the Cairo Congress of Arab Music held in Cairo, Egypt - and attended by such Western luminaries as Béla Bartók and Henry George Farmer - experiments were done which determined conclusively that the notes in actual use differ substantially from an even-tempered 24-tone scale. Furthermore, the intonation of many of those notes differ slightly from region to region (Egypt, Turkey, Syria, Iraq).
As a result of these findings, the following recommendation was issued: "The tempered scale and the natural scale should be rejected. In Egypt, the Egyptian scale is to be kept with the values, which were measured with all possible precision. The Turkish, Syrian, and Iraqi scales should remain what they are..." (translated in Maalouf 2002, p. 220). Both in modern practice, and evident in recorded music over the course of the last century, several differently-tuned "E"s in between the E-flat and E-natural of the Western Chromatic scale are used, that vary according to the types of maqams and ajnas used, and the region in which they are used.
Musicians and teachers refer to these in-between notes as "quarter tones," using "half-flat" or "half-sharp" as a deisgnation for the in-between flats and sharps, for ease of nomenclature. Performance and teaching of the exact values of intonation in each jins or maqam is usually done by ear. It should also be added, in reference to Habib Hassan Touma's comment above, that these "quarter-tones" are not used everywhere in the maqamat: in practice, Arabic music does not modulate to 12 different tonic areas like the Well-Tempered Klavier. The most commonly used "quarter tones" are on E (between E-flat and E-natural), A, B, D, F (between F-natural and F-sharp) and C.
Arab classical music is known for its famed virtuoso singers, who sing long, elaborately ornamented, melismatic tunes, and are known for driving audiences into ecstasy. Its traditions come from pre-Islamic times, when female singing slaves entertained the wealthy, and inspired warriors on the battlefield with their rajaz poetry, also performing at weddings.
Instruments and ensembles
The prototypical Arabic music ensemble in Egypt and Syria is known as the takht, and includes, (or included at different time periods) instruments such as the 'oud, qānūn, rabab, ney, violin (introduced in the 1840s or 50s), riq and dumbek. In Iraq, the traditional ensemble, known as the chalghi, includes only two melodic instruments - the jowza (similar to the rabab but with four strings) and santur- accompanied by the riq and dumbek.
The Arab world has incorporated instruments from the West, including the electric guitar, cello, double bass and oboe, and incorporated influences from jazz and other foreign musical styles. The singers remained the stars, however, especially after the development of the recording and film industry in the 1920s in Cairo. These singing celebrities include Abd el-Halim Hafez, Farid Al Attrach, Asmahan, Sayed Darwish, Mohammed Abd el-Wahaab, Warda Al-Jazairia, and possibly the biggest star of modern Arab classical music, Umm Kulthum.
A Maqam tone level example
Front and rear views of an oud.