Air Pollution Essay Conclusion Transitions

Transition signals are useful in achieving good cohesion and coherence in your writing. This page gives information on what transition signals are, the grammar of transition signals, and different types of transition signals. The is also an example essay at the end in which you can highlight the different types of transition signal.


What are transition signals?

Transition signals, along with repeated words and reference words, are one of the main ways to achieve good cohesion and coherence in your writing. They are therefore a way to help ensure that your ideas and sentences cohere or 'stick together'. Transition signals are used to signal relationships between ideas in your writing. For example, the transition signal 'for example' is used to give examples, while the word 'while' is used to show a contrast. In addition, there are phrases like 'in addition' for adding new ideas. Likewise there are words such as 'likewise' to connect similar ideas.


Grammar of transition signals

Broadly speaking, transition signals can be divided into three types:


Sentence connectors are used to connect two sentences together. They are joined by a full-stop (period) or semi-colon, and are followed by a comma. The following are examples of sentence connectors.


Clause connectors are used to connect two clauses together to form one sentence. They are joined by a comma. The following are examples of clause connectors.


Other connectors follow different grammar patterns. Many are followed by noun phrases. Some are verbs and should therefore be used as verbs in a sentence. The following are examples of other connectors.


Types of transition signals

Below are examples of different types of transition signals. They are divided by type, and sub-divided according to grammar.


To introduce an additional idea

Sentence connectors

  • also
  • besides
  • furthermore
  • in addition
  • moreover
  • additionally

Other

  • another (+ noun)
  • an additional (+ noun)


To compare

Sentence connectors

  • likewise
  • similarly
  • equally
  • in the same way

Clause connectors

  • and
  • both... and
  • not only... but also
  • neither... nor
  • just as

Other

  • as... as
  • like/alike
  • just like
  • to be similar to
  • to be alike
  • to be similar


To contrast

Sentence connectors

  • however
  • in contrast
  • instead
  • in/by comparison
  • nevertheless
  • nonetheless
  • on the other hand
  • on the contrary
  • still

Clause connectors

  • but
  • yet
  • although
  • even though
  • though
  • whereas
  • while

Other

  • despite (+ noun)
  • in spite of (+ noun)
  • compared to/with
  • to be different (from)
  • to be dissimilar
  • to be unlike
  • to differ (from)


To introduce a cause/reason

Other

  • to result from
  • to be the result of
  • due to
  • because of
  • to be the effect of
  • to be the consequence of
  • as a result of
  • as a consequence of


To introduce an effect/result

Sentence connectors

  • as a result
  • as a consequence
  • consequently
  • hence
  • thus
  • therefore

Other

  • to result in
  • to cause
  • to have an effect on
  • to affect
  • the cause of
  • the reason for


To give an example

Sentence connectors

  • for example
  • for instance
  • in this case

Other

  • such as (+ noun)
  • like
  • an example of (+ noun)
  • to demonstrate


To show chronological order

Sentence connectors

  • first, second, etc.
  • first of all
  • then
  • next
  • now
  • then
  • soon
  • last
  • finally
  • previously
  • meanwhile
  • gradually
  • after that
  • since
  • then

Clause connectors

  • after
  • as
  • as soon as
  • before
  • since
  • until
  • when
  • while

Other

  • the first, the second
  • the next, the last, the final
  • before (lunch etc.)
  • after (the war etc.)
  • since (1970 etc.)
  • in the year (2000 etc.)


To show order of importance

Sentence connectors

  • above all
  • first and foremost
  • more/most importantly
  • primarily

Other

  • a more important
  • the most important
  • the second most significant
  • the primary


To show an alternative


To identify or clarify

Sentence connectors

  • that is
  • in other words
  • specifically


To reinforce

Sentence connectors

  • in fact
  • indeed
  • of course
  • clearly


To conclude

Sentence connectors

  • all in all
  • in brief
  • in conclusion
  • in short
  • in summary

Other

  • to summarise
  • to conclude
  • It is clear that...
  • We can see that...
  • The evidence suggests...
  • These examples show...


Example essay

Below is an example essay. It is the one used in the persuasion essay section. Click on the different areas (in the shaded boxes to the right) to highlight the different types of transition signal in this essay.


Title: Consider whether human activity has made the world a better place.


Examples

 

Addition

   

Contrast

 

Reason

   

Alternative

 

Conclude

History shows that human beings have come a long way from where they started. They have developed new technologies which means that everybody can enjoy luxuries they never previously imagined. However, the technologies that are temporarily making this world a better place to live could well prove to be an ultimate disaster due to, among other things, the creation of nuclear weapons, increasing pollution, and loss of animal species.

The biggest threat to the earth caused by modern human activity comes from the creation of nuclear weapons. Although it cannot be denied that countries have to defend themselves, the kind of weapons that some of them currently possess are far in excess of what is needed for defence. If these weapons were used, they could lead to the destruction of the entire planet.

Another harm caused by human activity to this earth is pollution. People have become reliant on modern technology, which can have adverse effects on the environment. For example, reliance on cars causes air and noise pollution. Even seemingly innocent devices, such as computers and mobile phones, use electricity, most of which is produced from coal-burning power stations, which further adds to environmental pollution. If we do not curb our direct and indirect use of fossil fuels, the harm to the environment may be catastrophic.

Animals are an important feature of this earth and the past decades have witnessed the extinction of a considerable number of animal species. This is the consequence of human encroachment on wildlife habitats, for example deforestation to expand human cities. Some may argue that such loss of species is natural and has occurred throughout earth's history. However, the current rate of species loss far exceeds normal levels, and is threatening to become a mass extinction event.

In summary, there is no doubt that current human activities such as the creation of nuclear weapons, pollution, and destruction of wildlife, are harmful to the earth. It is important for us to see not only the short-term effects of our actions, but their long-term effects as well. Otherwise, human activities will be just another step towards destruction.

Transition signals

 

Examples

 

Addition

 

Contrast

 

Reason

 

Alternative

 

Conclude

 

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Checklist

Below is a checklist for transition signals. Use it to check your own writing, or get a peer (another student) to help you.


ItemOK?Comment
There is good use of transition signals, without being overused (not every sentence!)
The grammar is correct (e.g. using sentence connectors to join sentences with a full-stop (period), using clause connectors to join two clauses, using other connectors correctly e.g. 'due to' + noun)
There are different types of transition signal


Next section

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Previous section

Go back to the previous section about cohesion.






Cause and effect essays are another common essay type, either as an essay type on its own, or as part of a larger essay which includes one or more paragraphs examining causes and effects. This page gives information on what a cause and effect essay is, how to structure this type of essay, how to use cause and effect structure words (transition signals) for this type of essay. There is also an example cause and effect essay on the topic of women at work.


What are cause & effect essays?

A cause and effect essay looks at the reasons (or causes) for something, then discusses the results (or effects). For this reason, cause and effect essays are sometimes referred to as reason and result essays. They are one of the most common forms of organisation in academic writing. Sometimes the whole essay will be cause and effect, though sometimes this may be only part of the whole essay. It is also possible, especially for short exam essays, that only the causes or the effects, not both, are discussed. See the examples below.


Structure

There are two main ways to structure a cause & effect essay. These are similar to the ways to structure problem-solution essays, namely using a block or a chain structure. For the block structure, all of the causes are listed first, and all of the effects are listed afterwards. For the chain structure, each cause is followed immediately by the effect. Usually that effect will then be the cause of the next effect, which is why this structure is called 'chain'. Both types of structure have their merits. The former is generally clearer, especially for shorter essays, while the latter ensures that any effects you present relate directly to the causes you have given.


The two types of structure, block and chain, are shown in the diagram below.


Block

Introduction

Transition sentence/paragraph

Conclusion



Chain

Introduction

Cause 1
&
Effect of Cause 1

Cause 2
&
Effect of Cause 2

Cause 3
&
Effect of Cause 3

Conclusion


Cause and Effect Structure Words

Cause and effect structure words are transition signals which show the cause and effect relationships. It is important to be clear which is the cause (or reason) and which is the effect (or result), and to use the correct transition word or phrase. Remember that a cause happens first, and the effect happens later.


Below are some common cause and effect structure words. X is used to indicate a cause, while Y is used to indicate the effect.




Example essay

Below is a cause and effect essay. This essay uses the block structure. Click on the different areas (in the shaded boxes to the right) to highlight the different structural aspects in this essay, i.e. Causes, Effects, and structure words. This will highlight not simply the paragraphs, but also the thesis statement and summary, as these repeat the causes and effects contained in the main body.


Title: More and more women are now going out to work and some women are now the major salary earner in the family. What are the causes of this, and what effect is this having on families and society?


Causes

 

Effects

  

1

2

3

   

Cause transitions

 

Effect transitions

In the past, most women stayed at home to take care of domestic chores such as cooking or cleaning. Women's liberation and feminismhave meant that this situation has been transformed and in contemporary society women are playing an almost equal role to men in terms of work. This has had significant consequences, both in terms of the family, for example by improving quality of life and increasing children's sense of independence, and also for society itself with greater gender equality.

The main reasons behind the increase of women in the workplace are women's liberation and feminism. The women's liberation movement originated in the 1960s and was popularised by authors such as Simone de Beauvoir. As a consequence of this, new legislation emerged, granting women equal rights to men in many fields, in particular employment. Because of feminist ideas, men have taken up roles which were previously seen as being for women only, most importantly those related to child rearing. As a result of this, women have more time to pursue their own careers and interests.

These have led to some significant effects, both to family life and to society as a whole.

Although the earning capacity of a woman in her lifetime is generally much less than that of a man, she can nevertheless make a significant contribution to the family income. The most important consequence of this is an improved quality of life. By helping to maintain a steady income for the family, the pressure on the husband is considerably reduced, hence improving both the husband's and the wife's emotional wellbeing. Additionally, the purchasing power of the family will also be raised. This means that the family can afford more luxuries such as foreign travel and a family car.

A further effect on the family is the promotion of independence in the children. Some might argue that having both parents working might be damaging to the children because of a lack of parental attention. However, such children have to learn to look after themselves at an earlier age, and their parents often rely on them to help with the housework. This therefore teaches them important life skills.

As regards society, the most significant impact of women going to work is greater gender equality. There are an increasing number of women who are becoming politicians, lawyers, and even CEOs and company managers. This in turn has led to greater equality for women in all areas of life, not just employment. For example, women today have much stronger legal rights to protect themselves against domestic violence and sexual discrimination in the workplace.

In conclusion, the increasing number of women at work has brought about some important changes to family life, including improved quality of life and increased independence for children, as well as affecting society itself. It is clear that the sexes are still a long way from being equal in all areas of life, however, and perhaps the challenge for the present century is to ensure that this takes place.

Causes

 

Effects

1

2

3

 

Cause transitions

 

Effect transitions



GET A FREE SAMPLE

Like the website? Try the book. Enter your email to receive a free sample from the recently published title, EAP Foundation: Academic Presentations.


Checklist

Below is a checklist for the main body of an essay. Use it to check your own writing, or get a peer (another student) to help you.






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