What should be included:
In-text citation should containthe author (if known) OR title and date of production. Also, when referencing a quote or comment from a film, video, DVD, YouTube and television program, refer to the person by name within your paper and give the title and year of broadcast either in parentheses or as part of your sentence.
....the famous architect, Frank Gehry, commented … (The 7.30 Report 2011).
The Reference list should contain the author (if known), title, date of recording, format, publisher and place of recording. Any special credits and other information that might be useful can be noted after the citation.
For further information refer to Snooks p. 229 & 231 at 808.027 S938)
(Chains = Cantene/Titanus 2011)
Chains = Cantene/Titanus 2011, motion picture, British Film Institute, London.
(Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky 2010)
Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky 2010, video recording, Madman Entertainment, Australia. Directed by Jan Kounen.
(About Jenny Holzer 2011) or .......as portrayed in About Jenny Holzer(2011)
About Jenny Holzer 2011, dvd, Microcinema International, San Francisco, California.
…ever-present question about art is how it impacts on us (Gough 2017).
In the video What makes art good or bad? by RMIT professor Paul Gough (2017) the question is explored….
Gough, P 2017, What makes art good or bad?, video recording, YouTube, viewed 17 July 2017,
Note: Use pointed brackets around <URL> with full-stop after bracket.
…documentaries like (Robert Rauschenberg 1997) provide good example of fusing real art and life
Robert Rauschenberg: man at work 1997, streaming video, Arthaus Musik, viewed 13 September 2016, Kanopy database.
(Art + soul : a journey into the world of aboriginal art 2010)
Art + soul : a journey into the world of aboriginal art 2010, television program, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney, 4 October.
MHRA referencing distinguishes between citations for primary texts (e.g. novels, poems etc) and secondary texts (e.g. critical works, additional information).
Most in-text citations are in footnotes. Full details (including editions and translation details if appropriate) should be included in the footnotes for the first mention of a text for both primary and secondary texts. After this, a shortened version can be used, either in brackets in the body of the text, or in footnotes. Whichever method you choose, be consistent.
Examples for primary and secondary texts:
In-text, first mention, primary text: (in footnote) Emily Dickinson, The Complete Poems, ed. by Thomas H. Johnson (London: Faber, 1970) p. 172. All further references to this text are from this edition and are given parenthetically in the essay.
In-text, following mentions, primary text: (in body of text) (Dickinson, p.174) or (p.174)
In-text, first mention, secondary text: (in footnote) Brian Vickers, Francis Bacon and Renaissance Prose (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968) p. 49.
In-text, following mentions, secondary text: (in footnote) Vickers, p. 85.
In bibliography, primary and secondary texts: Emily Dickinson, The Complete Poems, ed. by Thomas H. Johnson (London: Faber, 1970).
For more information (but always check your course handbook first):